HTML & CSS tutorials
1. Hello world!
Note: While reading this page, bear in mind that although I have some experience of writing HTML and CSS I'm no expert. If you find errors or have proposals for improvements, please send me a message and help make this a better page for the benefit of future visitors. If you're new to or not that experienced in HTML and CSS, I suggest you go to the Introduction page and follow the instructions. To the left, there are links to more HTML and CSS tutorials.
Considering the fact that I refer HTML and CSS beginners to HTML Dog at the Introduction page, a Hello world tutorial is perhaps a bit superfluous. Anyway, it is the first HTML and CSS tutorial for now. To complete this tutorial, follow these instructions:
1. Open a new empty document with Notepad++ or some other text editor.
2. Write or copy this code to the document:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
3. Save the document as hello_world.html (or whatever as long as the extension is html).
4. Open hello_world.html (or whatever you've called the document) with Mozilla Firefox 10, Internet Explorer 9 or some other modern browser. The text
Hello world! should appear in the window.
Comments on the HTML code
Line 1 is an XML declaration. According to the page XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition) on w3.org,
an XML declaration is not required in all XML documents; however XHTML document authors are strongly encouraged to use XML declarations in all their documents. Such a declaration is required when the character encoding of the document is other than the default UTF-8 or UTF-16 and no encoding was determined by a higher-level protocol. When I started learning HTML, I decided to follow this recommendation, thinking that it would be useful at some point when I knew more; however, including an XML declaration in each and every HTML document has, as far as I know, had to influence whatsoever over how my web pages have been rendered by browsers. Decide for yourself whether to include an XML declaration or not in your HTML documents; according to W3C:s HTML validator, an XHTML document is valid whether an XML declaration is present or not (as long as the encoding is UTF-8, that is).
Line 5 tells a browser what kind of content the document contains (text/html) and what encoding that is used (UTF-8). I suggest you always use UTF-8, because any special character you will ever use should be rendered correctly if you do; that is not the case if you're using some other encoding, like ANSI.
See also HTML Beginner Tutorial on htmldog.com.
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